Fek Political situation of Tamil Nadu During Sangam era, the land was divided into self sufficient food producing units called Naatus. Thodithalai Vizhuthandinar, Purananuru, Translated by G. The Sangam Collection purananuru with meaning in classified into. Attruppatai poems read like travelogues in which poets who were returning with gifts, received from a king, encourage other poets to do the same by describing the glory of the king and his country. Purananuru with meaning in tamil pdf Companion studies to the history of Tamil literature. Hart and Hank Heifetz tr.
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Perunthinai Pothuviyal The Kaikkilai and Perunthinai are traditionally associated with akam poetry. In Purananuru, they occur in the context of the familiar puram landscape of warfare. Realism[ edit ] Purananuru songs exhibit a unique realism and immediacy not frequently found in classical literature.
The nature and the subject of the poems lend us to believe that poets did not write these poems on events that happened years prior, rather they wrote or sang them on impulse in situ.
Some of the poems are conversational in which the poet pleads, begs, chides or praises the king. One such example is poem The poet Kovur Kizhaar address the Chola king Killivalavan to save the lives of the children of a defeated enemy who are about to be executed by being trampled under an elephant.
Have pity on them…" The almost impressionistic picture the poem paints cannot be anything but by someone who is witness to the events present in the poem.
The second poem by Mudinagarayar addresses the Chera king Uthayan Cheralaathan and praises him for his feeding the armies at the Kurukshetra war. This is an obvious anachronism suggesting a king of the early common era Tamil country had a role to play in a mythological battle of the Mahabharata epic.
Based on this one poem, there have been attempts at dating the Purananuru poems to around BCE or older. See also: Tamil history from Sangam literature Each Purananuru poem has a colophon attached to it giving the authorship and subject matter of the poem, the name of the king or chieftain to whom the poem relates and the occasion which called forth the eulogy are also found.
It is from these colophons and rarely from the texts of the poems themselves, that we gather the names of many kings and chieftains and the poets and poetesses patronised by them. The task of reducing these names to an ordered scheme in which the different generations of contemporaries can be marked off one another has not been easy.
To add to the confusions, some historians have even denounced these colophons as later additions and untrustworthy as historical documents. A careful study of the synchronisation between the kings, chieftains and the poets suggested by these colophons indicates that this body of literature reflect occurrences within a period of four or five continuous generations at the most, a period of or years.
There have been unsuccessful attempts at dating the poems of Purananuru based on the mention of the mythical Mahabharata war. A more reliable source for the period of these poems is based on the mentions one finds on the foreign trade and presence of Greek and Roman merchants in the port of Musiri poem , which give us a date of between BCE to CE for the period of these poems. This is further strengthened by the mention of a reference to Ramayana in poem , and a reference to Maurya in poem , which indicates a late date of about BCE.
A combination of these two considerations would indicate a composition date range during the BCE century. The poem makes the analogy of a poet receiving royal gifts and that worn by the relatives of the poet as being unworthy for their status, to the event in the Ramayana, where Sita drops her jewels when abducted by Ravana and these jewels being picked up red-faced monkeys who delightfully wore the ornaments. Publishing in modern times[ edit ] A palm leaf manuscript with ancient Tamil text U.
Swaminatha Iyer CE resurrected the first three epics and Sangam literature from the appalling neglect and wanton destruction of centuries.
Tamil Surangam - Tamil Data Warehouse