PLANT ANATOMY FAHN PDF

About this title Plant Anatomy is an introduction to the anatomical and histological structure of vegetative and reproductive plant organs. Descriptions of cells and tissues are accompanied by line drawings and light- and electron-micrographs. In recognition of modern research, which has brought to light so many transitional forms, the need for flexibility in the definitions of various elements and tissues is stressed throughout. Gaps in the current knowledge that await further research are identified. The book presents the basic structure and variability of the cells and tissues of vascular plants, as well as considering developmental, functional, evolutionary and ecological aspects.

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The leaf is the site of photosynthesis in plants. Photosynthesis is the process of absorbing energy from sunlight and using it to produce food in the form of sugars. Leaves make it possible for plants to fulfill their role as primary producers in food chains. Not only do leaves make food, but they also generate oxygen during photosynthesis and are major contributors to the cycle of carbon and oxygen in the environment.

Leaves are a part of the plant shoot system, which also includes stems and flowers. Key Takeaways Plant leaves are very important structures as they help to maintain life on earth by generating food sugars via photosynthesis. Leaves can have different shapes and sizes.

The basic components of leaves in flowering plants angiosperms include the blade, the petiole, and the stipules. There are three main tissues found in leaves: the epidermis, the mesophyll, as well as vascular tissue.

Each tissue type is composed of layers of cells. In addition to performing photosynthesis, some plants have other highly specialized functions. Some animals, like the Indian leafwing butterfly, mimic leaves to camouflage themselves from predators. Evelyn Bailey Leaves can be found in a variety of shapes and sizes. Most leaves are broad, flat and typically green in color. Some plants, such as conifers, have leaves that are shaped like needles or scales.

Basic leaf features in angiosperms flowering plants include the leaf blade, petiole, and stipules. Blade - broad portion of a leaf. Apex - leaf tip. Margin - leaf edge boundary area. Margins can be smooth, jagged toothed , lobed, or parted. Veins - vascular tissue bundles that support the leaf and transport nutrients.

Midrib - central main vein arising from secondary veins. Base - area of the leaf that connects the blade to the petiole. Petiole - thin stalk that attaches the leaf to a stem. Stipules - leaf-like structures at the leaf base. Leaf shape, margin, and venation vein formation are the main features used in plant identification. Evelyn Bailey Leaf tissues are composed of layers of plant cells. Different plant cell types form three main tissues found in leaves.

These tissues include a mesophyll tissue layer that is sandwiched between two layers of epidermis. Leaf vascular tissue is located within the mesophyll layer. Epidermis The outer leaf layer is known as the epidermis. The epidermis secretes a waxy coating called the cuticle that helps the plant retain water.

The epidermis in plant leaves also contains special cells called guard cells that regulate gas exchange between the plant and the environment. Guard cells control the size of pores called stomata singular stoma in the epidermis.

Opening and closing the stomata allows plants to release or retain gases including water vapor, oxygen, and carbon dioxide as needed. Mesophyll The middle mesophyll leaf layer is composed of a palisade mesophyll region and a spongy mesophyll region. Palisade mesophyll contains columnar cells with spaces between the cells. Most plant chloroplasts are found in palisade mesophyll. Chloroplasts are organelles that contain chlorophyll, a green pigment that absorbs energy from sunlight for photosynthesis.

Spongy mesophyll is located below palisade mesophyll and is composed of irregularly shaped cells. Leaf vascular tissue is found in the spongy mesophyll. Vascular Tissue Leaf veins are composed of vascular tissue. Vascular tissue consists of tube-shaped structures called xylem and phloem that provide pathways for water and nutrients to flow throughout the leaves and plant. Specialized Leaves The leaves of the Venus flytrap are highly modified with a trigger mechanism to trap insects.

For example, carnivorous plants have developed specialized leaves that work to lure and trap insects. These plants must supplement their diet with nutrients gained from digesting animals because they inhabit areas where the soil quality is poor. The Venus flytrap has mouth-like leaves, which close like a trap to snare insects inside. Enzymes are then released in the leaves to digest the prey. The leaves of pitcher plants are shaped like pitchers and brightly colored to attract insects.

The inside walls of the leaves are covered with waxy scales that make them very slippery. Insects landing on the leaves may slip into the bottom of the pitcher-shaped leaves and be digested by enzymes. Leaf Imposters It is difficult to detect this Amazonian Horned Frog among the leaf litter of the forest due to its coloration. They camouflage themselves as leaves as a defense mechanism to escape predators. Other animals appear as leaves to capture prey.

Fallen foliage from plants that lose their leaves in the fall makes a perfect cover for animals that have adapted to resemble leaves and leaf litter.

Examples of animals that mimic leaves include the Amazonian horned frog, leaf insects, and the Indian leafwing butterfly.

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Fahn Plant Anatomy PDF

The leaf is the site of photosynthesis in plants. Photosynthesis is the process of absorbing energy from sunlight and using it to produce food in the form of sugars. Leaves make it possible for plants to fulfill their role as primary producers in food chains. Not only do leaves make food, but they also generate oxygen during photosynthesis and are major contributors to the cycle of carbon and oxygen in the environment.

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Plant anatomy,

ROOTS snake through the soil to take in water and minerals. The STEM supports the part of the plant above ground. It contains a network of microscopic tubes that transport essential water, minerals, and food between the roots and the leaves. Like animal cells, plant cells have a nucleus and an oily membrane surrounding the whole cell.

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Plant Anatomy by Fahn a

FAHN,translated by S. Pergamon Press, Oxford, THIS book aims to be a general text in plant anatomy for University courses and, at the same time, a reference book. To a large extent both. The first part of the book consists of three chapters which are presented as an introduction to the general structure of higher plants, the cell and meristems. The rest of the book is divided into four major sections : mature tissues, primary vegetative body of the plant, secondary body of the plant and reproductive organs. At the beginning of the section on tissues it is pointed out that with the accumulation of knowledge it becomes increasingly difficult to give exact definitions of tissues, but in spite of this clear and concise descriptions of the major tissues are given.

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