The major sites of lymphoid tissue are: Lymph nodes: Lymph nodes are bean-sized collections of lymphocytes and other immune system cells. Lymph vessels: A network of tiny tubes a lot like blood vessels that connect lymph nodes and carry immune cells in a clear fluid called lymph. Lymph is collected from around the body and put into the bloodstream. The spleen is part of your immune system. It makes lymphocytes and other immune system cells. It also stores healthy blood cells and filters out damaged blood cells, bacteria, and cell waste.
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The major sites of lymphoid tissue are: Lymph nodes: Lymph nodes are bean-sized collections of lymphocytes and other immune system cells. Lymph vessels: A network of tiny tubes a lot like blood vessels that connect lymph nodes and carry immune cells in a clear fluid called lymph. Lymph is collected from around the body and put into the bloodstream.
The spleen is part of your immune system. It makes lymphocytes and other immune system cells. It also stores healthy blood cells and filters out damaged blood cells, bacteria, and cell waste.
Bone marrow: The bone marrow is the liquid, spongy tissue inside certain bones. New blood cells including some lymphocytes are made there. Thymus: The thymus is a small organ behind the upper part of the breastbone and in front of the heart. Adenoids and tonsils: These are collections of lymph tissue in the back of your throat.
They help make antibodies against germs that are breathed in or swallowed. Digestive tract: The stomach, intestines, and many other organs also have lymph tissue. Although Hodgkin lymphoma can start almost anywhere, most often it starts in lymph nodes in the upper part of the body. The most common sites are in the chest, neck, or under the arms. Hodgkin lymphoma most often spreads through the lymph vessels from lymph node to lymph node.
Types of Hodgkin lymphoma Different types of Hodgkin lymphoma can grow and spread differently and may be treated differently. Classic Hodgkin lymphoma Classic Hodgkin lymphoma cHL accounts for more than 9 in 10 cases of Hodgkin lymphoma in developed countries. The cancer cells in cHL are called Reed-Sternberg cells. These cells are usually an abnormal type of B lymphocyte. Enlarged lymph nodes in people with cHL usually have a small number of Reed-Sternberg cells with a lot of normal immune cells around them.
These other immune cells cause most of the swelling in the lymph nodes. It accounts for about 7 out of 10 cases.
It tends to start in lymph nodes in the neck or chest. It can start in any lymph node but most often occurs in the upper half of the body. It usually occurs in the upper half of the body and is rarely found in more than a few lymph nodes. Lymphocyte-depleted Hodgkin lymphoma: This is a rare form of Hodgkin disease.
The cancer cells in NLPHL are large cells called popcorn cells because they look like popcorn , which are variants of Reed-Sternberg cells. NLPHL usually starts in lymph nodes in the neck and under the arm. It can occur in people of any age, and is more common in men than in women. This type of HL tends to grow more slowly and is treated differently from the classic types.
Associated with a primary immune disorder Associated with the human immunodeficiency virus HIV Post-transplant Associated with methotrexate therapy Primary central nervous system lymphoma occurs most often in immunocompromised patients, in particular those with AIDS, but it can occur in the immunocompetent, as well. It has a poor prognosis, particularly in those with AIDS. Treatment can consist of corticosteroids , radiotherapy , and chemotherapy , often with methotrexate. The Working Formulation of was a classification of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It excluded the Hodgkin lymphomas and divided the remaining lymphomas into four grades low, intermediate, high, and miscellaneous related to prognosis, with some further subdivisions based on the size and shape of affected cells. This purely histological classification included no information about cell surface markers , or genetics, and it made no distinction between T-cell lymphomas and B-cell lymphomas. It was widely accepted at the time of its publication, but is now obsolete.
Hodgkin lymphoma: Clinical manifestations, staging, and therapy. In: Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. Philadelphia, Pa. Accessed Oct. The lymphoma guide: Information for patients and caregivers.