What causes this? In most cases, the cause of a multinodular goiter is unknown. In addition, iodine deficiency can cause multinodular goiters, but this is very rare in the United States. Up to 20 percent of people with multinodular goiters will also develop thyroid cancer. Approximately 1. The cause of thyroid cancer is unknown.
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Sequence of events:  Iodine deficiency leading to decreased T4 production. Induction of thyroid cell hyperplasia due to low levels of T4. This accounts for the multinodular goitre appearance. Increased replication predisposes to a risk of mutation in the TSH receptor.
Treatments[ edit ] Toxic multinodular goiter can be treated with antithyroid medications such as propylthiouracil or methimazole , radioactive iodine, or with surgery. Physicians and surgeons tend to differentiate among solitary-nodule goiter, multinodular goiter, and non-nodular goiter more thoroughly in recent decades than they formerly did.
Thus some sources have described, or still describe, thyroid adenoma toxic adenoma as synonymous with toxic multinodular goiter,  but other sources differentiate those two as single-nodule disease versus multinodular disease respectively with pathogenesis that is likely differing in most cases eg, single neoplastic cell clone versus multifocal or diffuse molecular metabolic change.
This is logical given that advanced medical imaging that can show what is happening at various places within a thyroid gland inside a living person such as nuclear medicine imaging of radioiodine tracer uptake was not available until after the s.
European Journal of Endocrinology. Endocrine Reviews.
Multinodular Goiter: What You Need to Know
A goiter refers to an enlarged thyroid gland. Sometimes, a person can have a goiter that has multiple nodules or bumps on it, which is called a multinodular goiter. A toxic goiter is one that makes too much thyroid hormone, resulting in a condition called hyperthyroidism. Most thyroid nodules are harmless, but some can be cancerous. Scientists are still investigating the link between thyroid nodules and cancer.
Goitre multinodulaire: Causes, traitement, complications et plus
Pituitary gland and hypothalamus Open pop-up dialog box Close Pituitary gland and hypothalamus The pituitary gland and the hypothalamus are located within the brain and control hormone production. Your thyroid gland produces two main hormones — thyroxine T-4 and triiodothyronine T These hormones circulate in your bloodstream and help regulate your metabolism. They maintain the rate at which your body uses fats and carbohydrates, help control your body temperature, influence your heart rate, and help regulate the production of proteins. Your thyroid gland also produces calcitonin — a hormone that helps regulate the amount of calcium in your blood. Your pituitary gland and hypothalamus control the rate at which T-4 and T-3 are produced and released. The hypothalamus — an area at the base of your brain that acts as a thermostat for your whole system — signals your pituitary gland to make a hormone known as thyroid-stimulating hormone TSH.
What to know about multinodular goiter