Watson and M. Dallwitz Schisandraceae Bl. Excluding Illiciaceae Habit and leaf form. Lianas; bearing essential oils. With terminal aggregations of leaves, or without conspicuous aggregations of leaves. Climbing; stem twiners, or scrambling; Schisandra twining clockwise.

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Watson and M. Dallwitz Schisandraceae Bl. Excluding Illiciaceae Habit and leaf form. Lianas; bearing essential oils. With terminal aggregations of leaves, or without conspicuous aggregations of leaves. Climbing; stem twiners, or scrambling; Schisandra twining clockwise.

Lamina entire; pinnately veined; cross-venulate. Leaves exstipulate. Lamina margins entire, or dentate more often, or at least denticulate. Leaf anatomy. Mucilaginous epidermis present. Hairs present, or absent. The mesophyll with spherical etherial oil cells; usually containing mucilage cells. Minor leaf veins without phloem transfer cells Schisandra. Axial stem, wood anatomy. Young stems with solid internodes. Pith more or less homogeneous the central cells thinner walled.

Cork cambium present; initially superficial. Nodes unilacunar with three traces. Primary vascular tissues collateral. Internal phloem absent.

Cortical bundles absent. Medullary bundles absent. Secondary thickening developing from a conventional cambial ring. Primary medullary rays narrow.

The wood diffuse porous. The vessels large; solitary. The vessel end-walls scalariform, or simple. The vessels with spiral thickening, or without spiral thickening? The axial xylem with tracheids; without fibre tracheids; without libriform fibres.

The parenchyma apotracheal terminal only. The wood not storied. Tyloses present. Reproductive type, pollination. Fertile flowers functionally male, or functionally female, or functionally male and functionally female. Unisexual flowers present. Plants monoecious, or dioecious. Inflorescence, floral, fruit and seed morphology. Inflorescences axillary, or cauliflorous occasionally.

Flowers bracteolate, or ebracteolate; small; usually fragrant; regular; acyclic. The perianth acyclic, the androecium acyclic, and the gynoecium acyclic i. Floral receptacle not markedly hollowed conic to cylindrical or obovoid. Free hypanthium absent. Hypogynous disk absent. Androecium of male flowers, 4— Androecial members maturing centripetally; free of the perianth; free of one another to coherent the filaments connate basally to wholly connate in a globular, fleshy mass ; spiralled.

Androecium exclusively of fertile stamens, or including staminodes in some Kadsura species. Staminodes when present, 3—22; internal to the fertile stamens i. Stamens 4—80; filantherous the filaments short. Anthers basifixed, or adnate with separate thecae ; non-versatile; dehiscing via longitudinal slits; extrorse to introrse; tetrasporangiate.

Endothecium developing fibrous thickenings. Anther epidermis persistent. Microsporogenesis simultaneous. The initial microspore tetrads tetrahedral, or decussate, or tetrahedral and decussate.

Tapetum glandular. Pollen shed as single grains. Gynoecium 12— carpelled; apocarpous; eu-apocarpous spirally arranged ; superior. Placentation marginal. Stigmas wet type; papillate; Group III type. Ovules pendulous; collateral, or superposed; anatropous to campylotropous; bitegmic; crassinucellate. Outer integument contributing to the micropyle. Embryo-sac development Polygonum-type.

Polar nuclei fusing prior to fertilization. Antipodal cells formed; 3; not proliferating; very ephemeral. Synergids pear-shaped. Endosperm formation cellular. Embryogeny onagrad, or asterad. Fruit fleshy; an aggregate the fruiting carpels on a somewhat elongate axis, or in a dense head. The fruiting carpel indehiscent; baccate. Fruit typically 2 seeded. Seeds copiously endospermic. Endosperm oily and starchy.

Seeds flattened. Seeds with starch. Embryo well differentiated but minute. Cotyledons 2. Embryo straight. Physiology, phytochemistry. Not cyanogenic. Arbutin absent. Iridoids not detected. Proanthocyanidins present; cyanidin and delphinidin. Flavonols present; kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin. Ellagic acid absent Kadsura. Sieve-tube plastids S-type. Geography, cytology. Holarctic and Paleotropical. Temperate to tropical. Subclass Dicotyledonae; Crassinucelli.

Species Genera 2; Kadsura, Schisandra. General remarks. For a monograph of Kadsura, see Saunders Schisandra proquinqua. The stamens fig. We advise against extracting comparative information from the descriptions. This is much more easily achieved using the DELTA data files or the interactive key , which allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting or lacking specified attributes, distributions of character states within any set of taxa, geographical distribution, genera included in each family, and classifications Dahlgren; Dahlgren, Clifford, and Yeo; Cronquist; APG.

See also Guidelines for using data taken from Web publications. The families of Flowering Plants: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval.

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Pollination[ edit ] Schisandaceae are pollinated predominantly by nocturnal gall midges that lay their eggs in the male and female flowers in Schisandraceae species with unisexual flowers or the male-stage and female-stage flowers in species with bisexual flowers. The larvae of these midges develop in the floral tissue once it has dropped to the ground, feeding on floral exudates not ovules or pollen. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved Plants of the World Online.


The Families of Angiosperms







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