The hours[ edit ] In hour 1 the sun god enters the western horizon akhet which is a transition between day and night. In hour 4 he reaches Imhet the difficult sandy realm of Seker , the underworld hawk deity, where he encounters dark zig zag pathways which he has to negotiate, being dragged on a snake-boat. In hour 5 he discovers the tomb of Osiris which is an enclosure beneath which is hidden a lake of fire, the tomb is covered by a pyramid like mound identified with the goddess Isis and on top of which Isis and Nephthys have alighted in the form of two kites birds of prey. In the sixth hour the most significant event in the underworld occurs. The ba or soul of Ra unites with his own body, or alternatively with the ba of Osiris within the circle formed by the mehen serpent.
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The Duat is the inner dream world, existing in parallel with the Earth of the living and with the skies of the justified and the deities. It is before life and after death. This realm is entered by everybody during the hours of sleep and at death.
It is the home of the deities and the spirits of the noble, justified ancestors in the retinue of Osiris. In a mysterious way, the undifferentiated inertness of the primordial waters runs through it cf. In Nun, the autogenetic power floats Atum is the "soul of Nun" and hence the capacity to self-create eternal repetition and therewith the forces of the universe Ennead , creation Horus, Re and its order Maat.
The Amduat ca. The presence of this remarkable book, with its unseen fusion of visual and textual meanings, also underlines the accessability of the Duat by those still living on Earth. Although found in royal tombs and belonging to the privilege of the divine king, these texts are not exclusively funerary, but speak of a this-life ritual of rejuvenation regeneration - cf. Repeatedly, the Amduat states : "It is good for the dead to have this knowledge, but also for a person on Earth ; a remedy - a million times proven!
In the Pyramid texts of Unas , the earliest, complete and authorative corpus of Heliopolitanism, the Osirian rebirth and Solar illumination of the divine king are described. It is clear ascension to Re is impossible without passing through the kingdom of Osiris. In the Old Kingdom, this journey was the privilege of the divine king.
Indeed, in this period of Ancient Egyptian history, his position was still absolute. Treatise of the Hidden Chamber, the positions of the Ba-souls, the gods,.
The Egyptian Amduat – The Book of the Hidden Chamber
We know it since the time of queen Hatshepsut, ca. C, and during the 18th dynasty it forms the exclusive decoration on the walls of the royal burial chamber. In Ramesside time 19th and 20th dynasty , it still belongs to the standard decoration of royal tombs, besides other Books of the Netherworld. The only non-royal person in the New Kingdom who has used an Amduat for his tomb is the vizier highest official Useramun who was in office under Hatshepsut and Tuthmosis III. After the end of the New Kingdom B.
Unlike other funerary texts, however, it was reserved only for pharaoh s until the Twenty-first Dynasty almost exclusively or very favored nobility. It is said that the dead Pharaoh is taking this same journey, ultimately to become one with Ra and live forever. The Amduat names all of these gods and monsters. The main purpose of the Amduat is to give the names of these gods and monsters to the spirit of the dead Pharaoh, so he can call upon them for help or use their name to defeat them. As well as enumerating and naming the inhabitants of the Duat , both good and bad, the illustrations of the work show clearly the topography of the underworld. The hours In hour 1 the sun god enters the western horizon akhet which is a transition between day and night. In hour 4 he reaches the difficult sandy realm of Sokar , the underworld hawk deity, where he encounters dark zig zag pathways which he has to negotiate, being dragged on a snake-boat.