Main article: History of calculus Modern calculus was developed in 17th-century Europe by Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz independently of each other, first publishing around the same time but elements of it appeared in ancient Greece, then in China and the Middle East, and still later again in medieval Europe and in India. Ancient Archimedes used the method of exhaustion to calculate the area under a parabola. The ancient period introduced some of the ideas that led to integral calculus, but does not seem to have developed these ideas in a rigorous and systematic way. Calculations of volume and area , one goal of integral calculus, can be found in the Egyptian Moscow papyrus 13th dynasty , c. He used the results to carry out what would now be called an integration of this function, where the formulae for the sums of integral squares and fourth powers allowed him to calculate the volume of a paraboloid. Madhava of Sangamagrama and the Kerala School of Astronomy and Mathematics thereby stated components of calculus.
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Main article: History of calculus Modern calculus was developed in 17th-century Europe by Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz independently of each other, first publishing around the same time but elements of it appeared in ancient Greece, then in China and the Middle East, and still later again in medieval Europe and in India.
Ancient Archimedes used the method of exhaustion to calculate the area under a parabola. The ancient period introduced some of the ideas that led to integral calculus, but does not seem to have developed these ideas in a rigorous and systematic way. Calculations of volume and area , one goal of integral calculus, can be found in the Egyptian Moscow papyrus 13th dynasty , c. He used the results to carry out what would now be called an integration of this function, where the formulae for the sums of integral squares and fourth powers allowed him to calculate the volume of a paraboloid.
Madhava of Sangamagrama and the Kerala School of Astronomy and Mathematics thereby stated components of calculus. A complete theory encompassing these components is now well known in the Western world as the Taylor series or infinite series approximations.
I think it defines more unequivocally than anything else the inception of modern mathematics, and the system of mathematical analysis, which is its logical development, still constitutes the greatest technical advance in exact thinking. Pierre de Fermat , claiming that he borrowed from Diophantus , introduced the concept of adequality , which represented equality up to an infinitesimal error term. Isaac Newton developed the use of calculus in his laws of motion and gravitation.
The product rule and chain rule ,  the notions of higher derivatives and Taylor series ,  and of analytic functions [ citation needed ] were used by Isaac Newton in an idiosyncratic notation which he applied to solve problems of mathematical physics.
In his works, Newton rephrased his ideas to suit the mathematical idiom of the time, replacing calculations with infinitesimals by equivalent geometrical arguments which were considered beyond reproach. He used the methods of calculus to solve the problem of planetary motion, the shape of the surface of a rotating fluid, the oblateness of the earth, the motion of a weight sliding on a cycloid , and many other problems discussed in his Principia Mathematica In other work, he developed series expansions for functions, including fractional and irrational powers, and it was clear that he understood the principles of the Taylor series.
He did not publish all these discoveries, and at this time infinitesimal methods were still considered disreputable. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was the first to state clearly the rules of calculus. These ideas were arranged into a true calculus of infinitesimals by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz , who was originally accused of plagiarism by Newton.
His contribution was to provide a clear set of rules for working with infinitesimal quantities, allowing the computation of second and higher derivatives, and providing the product rule and chain rule , in their differential and integral forms. Unlike Newton, Leibniz paid a lot of attention to the formalism, often spending days determining appropriate symbols for concepts. Today, Leibniz and Newton are usually both given credit for independently inventing and developing calculus.
Newton was the first to apply calculus to general physics and Leibniz developed much of the notation used in calculus today. The basic insights that both Newton and Leibniz provided were the laws of differentiation and integration, second and higher derivatives, and the notion of an approximating polynomial series. When Newton and Leibniz first published their results, there was great controversy over which mathematician and therefore which country deserved credit.
Newton derived his results first later to be published in his Method of Fluxions , but Leibniz published his " Nova Methodus pro Maximis et Minimis " first. Newton claimed Leibniz stole ideas from his unpublished notes, which Newton had shared with a few members of the Royal Society.
This controversy divided English-speaking mathematicians from continental European mathematicians for many years, to the detriment of English mathematics. It is Leibniz, however, who gave the new discipline its name. Newton called his calculus " the science of fluxions ". Since the time of Leibniz and Newton, many mathematicians have contributed to the continuing development of calculus. One of the first and most complete works on both infinitesimal and integral calculus was written in by Maria Gaetana Agnesi.
In early calculus the use of infinitesimal quantities was thought unrigorous, and was fiercely criticized by a number of authors, most notably Michel Rolle and Bishop Berkeley. Berkeley famously described infinitesimals as the ghosts of departed quantities in his book The Analyst in Working out a rigorous foundation for calculus occupied mathematicians for much of the century following Newton and Leibniz, and is still to some extent an active area of research today.
Several mathematicians, including Maclaurin , tried to prove the soundness of using infinitesimals, but it would not be until years later when, due to the work of Cauchy and Weierstrass , a way was finally found to avoid mere "notions" of infinitely small quantities. Following the work of Weierstrass, it eventually became common to base calculus on limits instead of infinitesimal quantities, though the subject is still occasionally called "infinitesimal calculus".
Bernhard Riemann used these ideas to give a precise definition of the integral. It was also during this period that the ideas of calculus were generalized to Euclidean space and the complex plane. In modern mathematics, the foundations of calculus are included in the field of real analysis , which contains full definitions and proofs of the theorems of calculus. The reach of calculus has also been greatly extended. Henri Lebesgue invented measure theory and used it to define integrals of all but the most pathological functions.
Laurent Schwartz introduced distributions , which can be used to take the derivative of any function whatsoever. Limits are not the only rigorous approach to the foundation of calculus.
The resulting numbers are called hyperreal numbers , and they can be used to give a Leibniz-like development of the usual rules of calculus. There is also smooth infinitesimal analysis , which differs from non-standard analysis in that it mandates neglecting higher power infinitesimals during derivations. Significance While many of the ideas of calculus had been developed earlier in Greece , China , India , Iraq, Persia , and Japan , the use of calculus began in Europe, during the 17th century, when Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz built on the work of earlier mathematicians to introduce its basic principles.
The development of calculus was built on earlier concepts of instantaneous motion and area underneath curves. Applications of differential calculus include computations involving velocity and acceleration , the slope of a curve, and optimization.
Applications of integral calculus include computations involving area, volume , arc length , center of mass , work , and pressure. More advanced applications include power series and Fourier series. Calculus is also used to gain a more precise understanding of the nature of space, time, and motion.
For centuries, mathematicians and philosophers wrestled with paradoxes involving division by zero or sums of infinitely many numbers. These questions arise in the study of motion and area. The ancient Greek philosopher Zeno of Elea gave several famous examples of such paradoxes. Calculus provides tools, especially the limit and the infinite series , that resolve the paradoxes.
Principles Main articles: Limit of a function and Infinitesimal Calculus is usually developed by working with very small quantities. Historically, the first method of doing so was by infinitesimals.
These are objects which can be treated like real numbers but which are, in some sense, "infinitely small". From this point of view, calculus is a collection of techniques for manipulating infinitesimals. The symbols d.
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Calcul Diferential Si Integral 2
Categorie:Calcul diferențial și integral