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Railway[ edit ] A bogie in the UK, or a railroad truck, wheel truck, or simply truck in North America, is a structure underneath a railway vehicle wagon, coach or locomotive to which axles and, hence, wheels are attached through bearings. In Indian English , bogie may also refer to an entire railway carriage.
The first standard gauge British railway to build coaches with bogies, instead of rigidly mounted axles, was the Midland Railway in Another configuration is often used in articulated vehicles , which places the bogies often Jacobs bogies under the connection between the carriages or wagons.
Most bogies have two axles,  but some cars designed for heavy loads have more axles per bogie. Heavy-duty cars may have more than two bogies using span bolsters to equalize the load and connect the bogies to the cars.
Usually, the train floor is at a level above the bogies, but the floor of the car may be lower between bogies, such as for a bilevel rail car to increase interior space while staying within height restrictions , or in easy-access, stepless-entry, low-floor trains. Main article: List of railroad truck parts Key components of a bogie include:  The bogie frame: This can be of inside frame type where the main frame and bearings are between the wheels, or more commonly of outside frame type where the main frame and bearings are outside the wheels.
Suspension to absorb shocks between the bogie frame and the rail vehicle body. Common types are coil springs , leaf springs and rubber airbags. At least one wheelset , composed of an axle with bearings and a wheel at each end. The bolster , the main crossmember, connected to the bogie frame through the secondary suspension.
The railway car is supported at the pivot point on the bolster. Axle box suspensions absorb shocks between the axle bearings and the bogie frame. The axle box suspension usually consists of a spring between the bogie frame and axle bearings to permit up-and-down movement, and sliders to prevent lateral movement.
A more modern design uses solid rubber springs. Brake equipment : Two main types are used: brake shoes that are pressed against the tread of the wheel, and disc brakes and pads. In powered vehicles, some form of transmission , usually electrically powered traction motors with a single speed gearbox or a hydraulically powered torque converter.
The connections of the bogie with the rail vehicle allow a certain degree of rotational movement around a vertical axis pivot bolster , with side bearers preventing excessive movement.
More modern, bolsterless bogie designs omit these features, instead taking advantage of the sideways movement of the suspension to permit rotational movement. It was a heavy, cast-steel design weighing about 6. The leaf springs were replaced by coil springs one per wheel running vertically rather than horizontally.
The side frame of the bogie was usually of bar construction, with simple horn guides attached, allowing the axle boxes vertical movements between them. The axle boxes had a cast-steel equaliser beam or bar resting on them. The bar had two steel coil springs placed on it and the bogie frame rested on the springs. The effect was to allow the bar to act as a compensating lever between the two axles and to use both springs to soften shocks from either axle.
The bogie had a conventional bolster suspension with swing links carrying a spring plank. It was a fabricated steel design versus cast iron and was lighter than the Commonwealth, weighing in at 5 long tons 5. Axle to spring connection was again fitted with roller bearings.
However, now two coil springs rather than one were fitted per wheel. The British Rail Mark 2 coach, however, carried the B4 bogies from new. Some Mark 1 catering cars had mixed bogies—a B5 under the kitchen end, and a B4 under the seating end. Each wheel is separately connected to the bogie by a swing-arm axle. There is dual suspension: Primary suspension via a coil spring and damper mounted on each axle Secondary suspension via two air springs mounted on the pivot plank, this is connected to the bogie by pendulum links.
A constant coach height is maintained by air valves.
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