You are on page 1of 23 Search inside document Designation: E 97 An American National Standard Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Contact Examination of Weldments1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation E ; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon e indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense. Significance and Use ferrous or aluminum alloy materials to detect weld disconti- nuities Note 1.
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You are on page 1of 23 Search inside document Designation: E 97 An American National Standard Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Contact Examination of Weldments1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation E ; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision.
A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon e indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense. Significance and Use ferrous or aluminum alloy materials to detect weld disconti- nuities Note 1. The reflection method using pulsed waves is 3. Manual techniques are described employing contact described in this practice are intended to provide a means of of the search unit through a couplant film or water column.
The practice is both, depending upon the specific weld configurations. Prac- limited to the examination of specific weld geometries in tices for special geometries such as fillet welds and spot welds wrought or forged material. The practice is intended to be used on 3. The NOTE 1This practice is based on experience with ferrous and alumi- practice is especially suited to the detection of discontinuities num alloys.
Other metallic materials can be examined using this practice that present planar surfaces perpendicular to the sound beam. SI units are given for information only. Examples of reference stan- 1. A detailed procedure for weld safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the examination describing allowable discontinuity limits should responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- be written and agreed upon.
If a destructive Testing2 systematic assessment of the capability of the agency is E Practice for Ultrasonic Angle-Beam Examination by specified, a documented procedure such as Practice E shall the Contact Method2 be used as the basis for evaluation. E Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations2 4. Search Units 4. The inspection procedure 1 This practice is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee E-7 on Nonde- should be established by taking into consideration variables structive Testing and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E Current edition approved Dec.
Published February Originally 3 published as E 60 T. Last previous edition E 94a. Consideration should also be given to the be referred to as IIW-Type blocks.
This can be accomplished tion. Other reflector configu- 5. Calibration rations may be used. Equal-radius reflecting surfaces are 5. Distance calibration on a 5. However, full beam reflections from beam angle in a test block, and the instrument sweep is the square corner of the block will produce erroneous results calibrated along the beam line. Test information is graphically when calibrating angle beams near 60, due to mode conver- converted into position and depth coordinates for reflector sion.
The square corner of the block should not be used for location. The polar method is detailed in Annex A1.
Where extremely unit, and the instrument sweep is calibrated for depth to the accurate calibration is necessary, a procedure such as that outlined in 6. Test information is read 6. The rectangular for distance, amplitude, position, and depth calibration.
An coordinate method is detailed in Annex A2. Move the reflector through the 6. Reference Standards beam to 18, 38, 58, 78, and 98 of the Vee path. Adjust the delay to place indication 1 at sweep division 1. Adjust the range to 6. Since these controls checking and calibrating ultrasonic testing instrumentation, interact, repeat the delay and range adjustments until indica- which meet the basic geometrical configuration described in tions 1 and 9 are placed at sweep divisions 1 and 9.
At this sensitivity, differences of scale details. IIW-type blocks are primarily mark the maximum amplitudes on the screen from the reflector intended for characterizing and calibrating angle-beam test at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9.
Connect these points for the distance systems, but also provide features for such uses as straight- amplitude curve DA Curve. Corner reflections from the hole beam resolution and sensitivity checks. Hotchkiss, F. The couplant should wet the surfaces front of the search unit to the surface projection of the hole of the search unit and the test piece, and eliminate any air space centerline.
Since the depth to the hole is known, the calibration between the two. Typical couplants include water, oil, grease, provides means for estimating the position, depth, and relative glycerin, and cellulose gum. The couplant used should not be size of an unknown reflector. Sensitivity- When water is used, it should be clean and air-free. Inhibitors amplitude calibration standards that accomplish this end are or wetting agents, or both, may be used.
Surface notches be inspected. The following table is presented as a guide: can also accomplish this end under some circumstances. Ra in. Viscosity 6. Coupling Conditions 7. Attenuation in couplants and wedge materials base materials; however, the weld may be examined in the varies with temperature so that a calibration performed in a as-welded condition, provided the surface condition does not comfortable room is not valid for examination of either hotter interfere with valid interpretation of indications.
Distance-Amplitude Correction each side of the weld for a distance equal to several times the 8. Where scanning is to be performed along the 8. It is important to produce a method. In addition, the alternative method and its equipment surface that is as flat as possible. Generally, the surfaces do not shall meet all the performance requirements of this standard.
For thickness pletely scanned with a straight-beam search unit to detect less than 2 in. If this is the case, drill another hole at 12 thickness results by obstructing the sound beam.
Consideration must be and use the 12 and thickness reflectors for correction. The thickness depth 7. Equally reflective to different beam angles.
Side-drilled holes However, they bear negligible size relationship to most critical defects. Difficult to manufacture and requires good angular agreement of drilled hole with testing Flat-bottom hole at testing angle angle.
Square notches simulate cracks at surface. V-notch half-angle should complement beam Surface notches angle for maximum response. Additional calibration blocks of inter- mediate thicknesses can be used to obtain additional data points.
The ultrasonic instrument, search unit, angle beam wedge, and couplant used for the distance-amplitude calibra- tion must also be used for the weld examination. Test the other calibration reflectors FIG. During examination the distance amplitude curve may be used to estimate indica- tion amplitude in percent of the DA Curve. Use is made of all reflectors in the calibration range.
The testing equipment, search unit, couplant, etc. Ground Flush 8. Means of accomplishing the equalization of amplitude from equal-size reflectors over the distance range is best described for each instrument in the operating manual for that instrument.
Inspect circumferential welds using Techniques 12 and 13 Fig. Base choice of angle both on the radius of curvature and the thickness of the material in order to provide a beam that will travel through the material and reflect from the opposite surface. Only the area of the reflector that reflects energy to the search unit is measured. See Fig.
This method is appropriate for reflectors with dimensions greater than the beam diameter. For reflectors smaller than the beam, significant errors may occur. Amplitude evaluation should be based upon experience with actual defects since artificially Reflector Evaluation produced reflectors are not always directly relatable to real For adversely oriented planar defects, been achieved in accordance with 6.
It must Reflector height 18 An example is shown in Fig.
ASTM E164 - Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Contact Examination of Weldments.pdf
Kajigrel The reflection method using pulsed waves is specified. Note 1 — This practice is based on experience with ferrous and aluminum alloys. Work Item s — proposed revisions of this standard. Other nondestructive examinations astm e be used when porosity and slag inclusions must be critically evaluated.
More E The practice is limited to the examination of specific weld geometries in wrought or forged material. The practice is especially suited to the detection of discontinuities that present planar surfaces perpendicular to the sound beam. Other nondestructive examinations may be used when porosity and slag inclusions must be critically evaluated. Examples of reference standards are given in Section 7. A detailed procedure for weld examination describing allowable discontinuity limits should be written and agreed upon. Scope 1.
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